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水一方皮划艇商城基础教程之;白水艇安全指南(一 )必看






This code has been prepared using the best available information and has been reviewed by a broad cross-section of whitewater experts. The code, however, is only a collection of guidelines; attempts to minimize risks should be flexible, not constrained by a rigid set of rules. Varying conditions and group goals may combine with unpredictable circumstances to require alternate procedures. This code is not intended to serve as a standard of care for commercial outfitters or guides.


I. Personal Preparedness and Responsibility
一. 个人准备及责任。

1.Be a competent swimmer, with the ability to handle yourself underwater.


2.Wear a life jacket. a snugly-fitting vest-type life preserver offers back and shoulder protection as well as the flotation needed to swim safely in whitewater.


3.Wear a solid, correctly-fitted helmet when upsets are likely. This is essential in kayaks or covered canoes, and recommended for open canoeists using thigh straps and rafters running steep drops


4.Do not boat out of control.Your skills should be sufficient to stop or reach shore before reaching danger. Do not enter a rapid unless you are reasonably sure that you can run it safely or swim it without injury.

5.Whitewater rivers contain many hazards which are not always easily recognized. The following are the most frequent killers.

1)High Water. The river’s speed and power increase tremendously as the flow increases, raising the difficulty of most rapids. Rescue becomes progressively harder as the water rises, adding to the danger. Floating debris and strainers make even an easy rapid quite hazardous. It is often misleading to judge the river level at the put in, Since a small rise in a wide, shallow place will be multiplied many times where the river narrows. Use reliable gauge information whenever possible, and be aware that sun on snowpack, hard rain, and upstream dam releases may greatly increase the flow.

2)Cold. Cold drains your strength and robs you of the ability to make sound decisions on matters affecting your survival. Cold-water immersion, because of the initial shock and the rapid heat loss which follows, is especially dangerous. Dress appropriately for bad weather or sudden immersion in the water. When the water temperature is less than 50 degrees F., a wetsuit or drysuit is essential for protection if you swim. Next best is wool or pile clothing under a waterproof shell. In this case, you should also carry waterproof matches and a change of clothing in a waterproof bag. If, after prolonged exposure, a person experiences uncontrollable shaking, loss of coordination, or difficulty speaking, he or she is hypothermic, and needs your assistance.

3)Strainers. Brush, fallen trees, bridge pilings, undercut rocks or anything else which allows river current to sweep through can pin boats and boaters against the obstacle. Water pressure on anything trapped this way can be overwhelming. rescue is often extremely difficult. Pinning may occur in fast current, with little or not whitewater to warn of the danger.

4)Dams, weirs, ledges, reversals, holes, and hydraulics. When water drops over a obstacle, it curls back on itself, forming a strong upstream current which may be capable of holding a boat or swimmer. Some holes make for excellent sport. Others are proven killers. Paddlers who cannot recognize the difference should avoid all but the smallest holes. Hydraulics around man-made dams must be treated with utmost respect regardless of their height or the level of the river. Despite their seemingly benign appearance, they can create an almost escape-proof trap. The swimmer’s only exit from the “drowning machine” is to dive below the surface when the downstream current is flowing beneath the reversal.


6.Broaching. when a boat is pushed sideways against a rock by strong current, it may collapse and wrap. this is especially dangerous to kayak and decked canoe paddlers; these boats will collapse and the combination of indestructible hulls and tight outfitting may create a deadly trap. even without entrapment,
releasing pinned boats can be extremely time-consuming and dangerous. to avoid pinning, throw your weight downstream towards the rock. this allows the current to slide harmlessly underneath the hull.

7.Boating alone is discouraged. The minimum party is three people or two craft.

8.Have a frank knowledge of your boating ability, and don’t attempt rivers or rapids which lie beyond that ability.

9.Be in Good physical and mental condition, consistent with the difficulties which may be expected. Make adjustments for loss of skills due to age, health, fitness. Any health limitations must be explained to your fellow paddlers prior to starting the trip.

10.Be practiced in self-rescue, including escape from an overturned craft. The eskimo roll is strongly recommended for decked boaters who run rapids Class IV or greater, or who paddle in cold environmental conditions.
包括翻滚技术。过四级或者更高级的急流,或者在冰冻的环境中,强烈建议会eskimo rool(花式艇的翻滚)。

11.Be trained in rescue skills, CPR, and first aid with special emphasis on the recognizing and treating hypothermia. It may save your friend’s life.

12.Carry equipment needed for unexpected emergencies, including foot wear which will protect your feet when walking out, a throw rope, knife, whistle, and waterproof matches. If you wear eyeglasses, tie them on and carry a spare pair on long trips. Bring cloth repair tape on short runs, and a full repair kit on isolated rivers. Do not wear bulky jackets, ponchos, heavy boots, or anything else which could reduce your ability to survive a swim.

13.Despite the mutually supportive group structure described in this code, individual paddlers are ultimately responsible for their own safety, and must assume sole responsibility for the following decisions:

I.The decision to participate on any trip. This includes an evaluation of the expected difficulty of the rapids under the conditions existing at the time of the put-in.

II.The selection of appropriate equipment, including a boat design suited to their skills and the appropriate rescue and survival gear.

III.The decision to scout any rapid, and to run or portage according to their best judgment. Other members of the group may offer advice, but paddlers should
resist pressure from anyone to paddle beyond their skills. It is also their responsibility to decide whether to pass up any walk-out or take-out opportunity.

IV.All trip participants should consistently evaluate their own and their group’s safety, voicing their concerns when appropriate and following what they believe to be the best course of action. Paddlers are encouraged to speak with anyone whose actions on the water are dangerous, whether they are a part of your group or not.


二.Boat and Equipment Preparedness

1.Test new and different equipment under familiar conditions before relying on it for difficult runs. This is especially true when adopting a new boat design or outfitting system. Low-volume craft may present additional hazards to inexperienced or poorly conditioned paddlers.

2.Be sure your boat and gear are in good repair before starting a trip. The more isolated and difficult the run, the more rigorous this inspection should be.

3.Install flotation bags in non-inflatable craft, securely fixed in each end, designed to displace as much water as possible. Inflatable boats should have multiple air chambers and be test-inflated before launching.

4.Have strong, properly sized paddles or oars for controlling your craft. Carry sufficient spares for the length and difficulty of the trip.

5.Outfit your boat safely. The ability to exit your boat quickly is an essential component of safety in rapids. It is your responsibility to see that thereis absolutely nothing to cause entrapment when coming free of an upset craft. This includes:
I.Spray covers which won’t release reliably or which release prematurely.
II.Boat outfitting too tight to allow a fast exit, especially in low volume kayaks or decked canoes. This includes low-hung thwarts in canoes lacking adequate clearance for your feet and kayak footbraces which fail or allow your feet to become wedged under them.
III.Inadequately supported decks which collapse on a paddler’s legs when a decked boat is pinned by water pressure. Inadequate clearance with the deck because of your size or build.
IV.Loose ropes which cause entanglement. Beware of any length of loose line attached to a whitewater boat. All items must be tied tightly and excess line eliminated; painters, throw lines, and safety rope systems must be completely and effectively stored. Do not knot the end of a rope, as it can get caught in cracks between rocks.


I. 防浪裙不能及时打开或者过早打开。


III. 当船被水压钉住,不适当地支撑着的覆盖物倒下压住你的腿。因你的体格或者身材而不能清除覆盖物。

IV. 松散的绳造成的纠缠。小心附在白水船上的松散的绳子的任何长度。所有东西必需紧绑并且剩余的绳子要去掉;"钉“,抛绳,安全绳必需完整并被有效保存。不要在绳子的末端打结,因为它会绊在石缝之间。

6.Provide ropes which permit you to hold on to your craft so that it may be rescued. The following methods are recommended:
I.Kayaks and covered canoes should have grab loops of 1/4” + rope or equivalent webbing sized to admit a normal-sized hand. Stern painters are permissible if properly secured.
II.Open canoes should have securely anchored bow and stern painters consisting of 8 - 10 feet of 1/4” + line. These must be secured in such a way that they are readily accessible, but cannot come loose accidentally. Grab loops are acceptable, but are more difficult to reach after an upset.
III.Rafts and dories may have taut perimeter lines threaded through the loops provided. Footholds should be designed so that a paddler’s feet cannot be forced through them, causing entrapment. Flip lines should be carefully and reliably stowed.


I.独木舟和封闭式的船应该有1/4'+粗的绳或者其他设备造成的圆环或者可抓手的地方,可容下普通尺寸的手。如果牢固话,stern painters(尾舵?)是充许的。
II.开放式的船必需有8-10英尺长,1/4'粗的绳构成的安全的anchored bow(船头的锚?) 和stern painters(尾舵?)。这些绳必需牢固并且容量被抓住,但不能由于意外而松开。圆环是合适的,但翻船后不容易抓住。

7.Know your craft’s carrying capacity, and how added loads affect boat handling in whitewater. Most rafts have a minimum crew size which can be added to on day trips or in easy rapids. Carrying more than two paddlers in an open canoe when running rapids is not recommended.

8.Car-top racks must be strong and attach positively to the vehicle. Lash your boat to each crossbar, then tie the ends of the boats directly to the bumpers for added security. This arrangement should survive all but the most violent vehicle accident.

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