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水一方皮划艇商城基础教程之;白水艇安全指南(三 )必看

 The six difficulty classes:

六种难度级别:


Class I Rapids
List of Class I thru III Rated Rapids

Fast moving water with riffles and small waves. Few obstructions, all obvious and easily missed with little training. Risk to swimmers is slight; self-rescue is easy.

一级急流
(一到三级的急流列表)(可以去看看用来对比一下具体如何分级)
http://www.americanwhitewater.org/content/Wiki/do-op/id/safety:class5benchmarkrapids

有浅滩和小浪的快速流动的水。很少障碍物,通过简单的训练就可以避开或者容易避开它们。对游泳者的危险是微不足道的;容易自救。


Class II Rapids: Novice
List of Class I thru III Rated Rapids
Straightforward rapids with wide, clear channels which are evident without scouting. Occasional maneuvering may be required, but rocks and medium-sized waves are easily missed by trained paddlers. Swimmers are seldom injured and group assistance, while helpful, is seldom needed. Rapids that are at the upper end of this difficulty range are designated “Class II+”.

二级急流:新手
(一到三级的急流列表)

笔直而宽阔的急流,明显清晰的通道,无需派人在岸上作保护。偶而需要用到技巧,但受训过的浆手可以轻易避开石头和中等尺寸的浪。游泳者很少会受伤并且团队有的救援几乎不需要。难度等级在此之上的急流标为“二级+”。


Class III: Intermediate
List of Class III Rated Rapids
Rapids with moderate, irregular waves which may be difficult to avoid and which can swamp an open canoe. Complex maneuvers in fast current and good boat control in tight passages or around ledges are often required; large waves or strainers may be present but are easily avoided. Strong eddies and powerful current effects can be found, particularly on large-volume rivers. scouting is advisable for inexperienced parties. Injuries while swimming are rare; self-rescue is usually easy but group assistance may be required to avoid long swims. Rapids that are at the lower or upper end of this difficulty range are designated “Class III-” or “Class III+” respectively.

三级:中间的

三级急流列表

有中等,不规则的浪的急流,浪可能难以避开并且会淹过开放式的艇。需要有良好的控船能力和复杂的技巧快速通过很窄的通道或者满布暗礁的地方;大浪或者“钉”可能会出现,但可以轻易避开。强大的漩涡和强劲的水流影响会被发现,尤其在大容职的河流。对不熟练的一方(应该包括人和危险的地方)要在岸上设保护。游泳时受伤不多见;自救通常都容易,但团队的救援可能需要,以避免长时间的漂浮。分别地,难度有所降低或者增强的急流标记为“三级-”和“三级+”。


Class IV: Advanced
List of Class IV Rated Rapids
Intense, powerful but predictable rapids requiring precise boat handling in turbulent water. Depending on the character of the river, it may feature large, unavoidable waves and holes or constricted passages demanding fast maneuvers under pressure. A fast, reliable eddy turn may be needed to initiate maneuvers, scout rapids, or rest. Rapids may require “must” moves above dangerous hazards. Scouting may be necessary the first time down. Risk of injury to swimmers is moderate to high, and water conditions may make self-rescue difficult. Group assistance for rescue is often essential but requires practiced skills. A strong eskimo roll is highly recommended. Rapids that are at the lower or upper end of this difficulty range are designated “Class IV-” or “Class IV+” respectively.
四级:高级的
四级急流列表

激烈,强劲但可预测的急流,在狂暴的水中需要密闭的船来操控。根据河流的特性,它会出现巨大的,不可避免的浪和洞,或者很窄的通道需要在压力之下迅速找到应付的对策。一个激烈,确切的回卷漩涡可能需要商量对策,设置保护,或者放弃。急流可能要求必需在危险之上行动。第一个下去之前设置保护可能是必需的。游泳者受伤的风险是中到高,水势可能令到自救困难。团队救援通常是必不可少的,但需要熟练的技巧。建议掌握熟练的爱斯基摩翻滚技巧。分别地,难度有所降低或者增强的急流标记为“四级-”和“四级+”。


Class 5: Expert
List of Class 5 Rated Rapids
Extremely long, obstructed, or very violent rapids which expose a paddler to added risk. Drops may contain** large, unavoidable waves and holes or steep, congested chutes with complex, demanding routes. Rapids may continue for long distances between pools, demanding a high level of fitness. What eddies exist may be small, turbulent, or difficult to reach. At the high end of the scale, several of these factors may be combined. Scouting is recommended but may be difficult. Swims are dangerous, and rescue is often difficult even for experts. A very reliable eskimo roll, proper equipment, extensive experience, and practiced rescue skills are essential. Because of the large range of difficulty that exists beyond Class IV, Class 5 is an open-ended, multiple-level scale designated by class 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, etc... each of these levels is an order of magnitude more difficult than the last. Example: increasing difficulty from Class 5.0 to Class 5.1 is a similar order of magnitude as increasing from Class IV to Class 5.0.

五级:专家
五级急流列表

极端的长,偏远,或者非常剧烈的急流,会将浆手暴露在额外的危险里。 跌水可能包含巨大的,不可避免的浪和洞,或者险峻,狭窄的瀑布,伴随着复杂吃力的线路。两个水潭(或者实际上的浅滩)之间由长距离的急流连着,要求高水平的适应。漩涡的存在可能很小,很狂暴,或者很难通过。这一等级的最高难度,是许多这些因素混合在一起。建议在岸上设保护但可能很困难。游泳是危险的,即使是专家,救援也通常是很困难的。扎实的爱斯基摩翻滚技术,合适的装备,丰富的经验,和熟练的救援技巧是必需要的。因为比四级存在更大的困难,五级是极限的,多重等级的标尺,标为5.0,5.1,5.2等。每一个水平的等级都比以前的更为困难。例如,5.0到5.1的难度与四级到5.0的难度想似。
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Class VI: Extreme and Exploratory Rapids
These runs have almost never been attempted and often exemplify the extremes of difficulty, unpredictability and danger. The consequences of errors are very severe and rescue may be impossible. For teams of experts only, at favorable water levels, after close personal inspection and taking all precautions. After a Class VI rapids has been run many times, its rating may be changed to an apppropriate Class 5.x rating.

六级:极端和探险级的急流

这样的行程几乎从未被尝试过并且通常是极端困难的,不可预测的和危险的。犯错的后果是非常严重并且救援也许是不可能的。在顺利的水流水平下,个人检查完结并作好保护之后,仅适合专家组成的团队。六级的急流流了许久的后,可能会变成5.X的急流。


关于水流的分级,


Class I
Moving Water with a few riffles and small waves. Few or no obstructions

一级
水流中有一些涟渏和小浪花。几乎没有障碍物。

Class II
Easy rapids with waves up to one meter high and wide, clear channels that are obvious without scouting. Some manoeuvring is required.

二级
和缓的急流中有最大一米高和宽的浪头,有不必停船查看就能分辨的清晰通道。需要一些技巧。

Class III
Rapids with high, irregular waves often capable of swamping an open canoe. Narrow passages that often require complex manoeuvring. May require scouting from shore.

三级
急流中有不规则的大浪,通常能够打翻开放式划艇。有一些狭窄的通道,但要求复杂的技巧。可能需要上岸查看。

Class IV
Long, difficult rapids with constricting passages that often require precise manoeuvring in very turbulent waters. Scouting from shore is necessary, and conditions make rescue difficult. General not possible for open canoes. Boaters in covered canoes and kayaks should have ability to Eskimo roll.

四级
急流距离长,难度大,有着非常狭窄的通道,通常需要在翻腾的水流中能做出精确的技巧。必须上岸查看而且救援困难。一般而言不适合开放式划艇。对于盖以挡水罩的划艇和皮艇,艇员应能做爱斯基摩翻滚。

Class V
Extremely difficult, long and very violent rapids with highly congested routes, which always should be scouted from shore. Rescue conditions are difficult, and there is significant hazard to life in the event of a mishap. Ability to Eskimo roll is essential for boaters in kayaks and decked canoes. Unsuitable for open canoes.

五级
急流距离长,水流湍急,难度极大,有着高度狭窄的通道,上岸查看是不可或缺的。救援困难,发生意外时易危及生命。对于皮艇和有封闭甲板的划艇的艇员而言,爱斯基摩翻滚是基本的要求。不适合开放式划艇。

Class VI
Difficulties for Class V carried to the extreme of navigability. Nearly impossible and very dangerous. For teams of experts only, after a close study has been made and all precautions have been taken. Unsuitable for open canoes.

六级
难度同五级,但可漂性到了极端的情况。几乎不可能并且很危险。只适合于组队的高手,并在密切研读,并采取所有的防范措施之后才可一试。不适合开放式划艇。 

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