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水一方皮划艇商城基础教程之;白水艇安全指南(一 )必看

 西方的划艇运动发展了很长的一段时间,已经形成较为完善的整套东西。

白水的安全指引,是西方人对划艇运动的很多经验和教训积累出来,形成的一些守则。

相信对于国内断断续续,还算是起步的划艇运动来说,这些经验和教训形成的指引是十分珍贵的。


对于所有如我等爱水者,安全是第一要素,希望大家都可以学到一些东西。
希望此指引可以令爱水者可以更安全理性地玩水。

Introduction
引言

This code has been prepared using the best available information and has been reviewed by a broad cross-section of whitewater experts. The code, however, is only a collection of guidelines; attempts to minimize risks should be flexible, not constrained by a rigid set of rules. Varying conditions and group goals may combine with unpredictable circumstances to require alternate procedures. This code is not intended to serve as a standard of care for commercial outfitters or guides.

此法则是用最有用的信息写成,并由众多不同地方的白水专家复核。但是,此法则仅仅作为参考的指引,要灵活变通去活用它去将风险降到最低,而不要拘泥于死的法则。变化的条件和团体的目标,结合不可预知的环境因素,需要备用的程序。此法则不同于商业团体标准照顾的服务。

I. Personal Preparedness and Responsibility
一. 个人准备及责任。

1.Be a competent swimmer, with the ability to handle yourself underwater.

是一个胜任的游泳者。
有在水中控制自己的能力。


2.Wear a life jacket. a snugly-fitting vest-type life preserver offers back and shoulder protection as well as the flotation needed to swim safely in whitewater.

穿着救生夹克。
漂流在白水中需要游泳时,一件贴身合适的背心式救生工具可以给你的背部及肩部提供很好的保护,以及令你安全。


3.Wear a solid, correctly-fitted helmet when upsets are likely. This is essential in kayaks or covered canoes, and recommended for open canoeists using thigh straps and rafters running steep drops

当有可能头冲下时,头上正确佩戴着一个坚固合适的头盔。
对kayak和封闭式的独木舟而言是必不可少的。
对于划使用腿带的开放式划艇和划橡皮艇冲急陡的跌水的人推荐使用



4.Do not boat out of control.Your skills should be sufficient to stop or reach shore before reaching danger. Do not enter a rapid unless you are reasonably sure that you can run it safely or swim it without injury.
不能在能力控制范围之外的地方划艇。
你应该有足够的技巧和能力在危险之前停船或者到达岸边。除非你确信你能安全通过或者能不受伤地游泳通过,否则切勿进入急流。



5.Whitewater rivers contain many hazards which are not always easily recognized. The following are the most frequent killers.
白水河流包含许多危险的地方并不总能轻易辨识出。以下的就是一些最常见的杀手。

1)High Water. The river’s speed and power increase tremendously as the flow increases, raising the difficulty of most rapids. Rescue becomes progressively harder as the water rises, adding to the danger. Floating debris and strainers make even an easy rapid quite hazardous. It is often misleading to judge the river level at the put in, Since a small rise in a wide, shallow place will be multiplied many times where the river narrows. Use reliable gauge information whenever possible, and be aware that sun on snowpack, hard rain, and upstream dam releases may greatly increase the flow.
高水位。
随着水流的增加,河流的速度和力量将会得到巨大的增强。大部份急流的难度会增加。救援将会随着水位的上涨而变得越来越困难,甚至变得危险。漂浮的碎片或者物体令到即使是很简单的急流也变得非常险要。进入时通常都很难判断水的级别,因为在宽阔而浅的地方,少少的水涨,都会使河流增加许多峡口。在任何时候,利用可靠的计量资讯,并且留意滑雪场的日照,大雨,水坝的放水,这些都会令水量大增。



2)Cold. Cold drains your strength and robs you of the ability to make sound decisions on matters affecting your survival. Cold-water immersion, because of the initial shock and the rapid heat loss which follows, is especially dangerous. Dress appropriately for bad weather or sudden immersion in the water. When the water temperature is less than 50 degrees F., a wetsuit or drysuit is essential for protection if you swim. Next best is wool or pile clothing under a waterproof shell. In this case, you should also carry waterproof matches and a change of clothing in a waterproof bag. If, after prolonged exposure, a person experiences uncontrollable shaking, loss of coordination, or difficulty speaking, he or she is hypothermic, and needs your assistance.
寒冷。
寒冷会令你的力量枯竭,在影响你生还的事情上,它会令你失去作出全面判断抉择的能力。浸没在冻水里,由于颤抖和紧跟着的热量的迅速流失,这会特别危险。穿着在恶劣天气或者突然落水时可以保暧的衣服。当水温低于50华氏度(相当于10摄氏度),如果你游泳,湿衣或者干衣的保护是必须的。最好是在防水外套里穿着毛织品。在这种情况,你应该带上防水包,并把可换的衣服放在里面。如果发觉得迟,有人无法控制地擅抖,或者讲话困难,他或者她就是失温,需要你的帮助。



3)Strainers. Brush, fallen trees, bridge pilings, undercut rocks or anything else which allows river current to sweep through can pin boats and boaters against the obstacle. Water pressure on anything trapped this way can be overwhelming. rescue is often extremely difficult. Pinning may occur in fast current, with little or not whitewater to warn of the danger.
滤洞
灌木丛,倒下的树,桥桩,底部掏空的岩石,或者其它任何可以让河水加速流过的东西会将船只和船员别在障碍物上。水压对钉在其中的任何东西都是压倒性无法抗拒的。求援通常都极端困难。“别”在快速水流中也可能发生,只有少许或根本没有浪花来预示危险。




4)Dams, weirs, ledges, reversals, holes, and hydraulics. When water drops over a obstacle, it curls back on itself, forming a strong upstream current which may be capable of holding a boat or swimmer. Some holes make for excellent sport. Others are proven killers. Paddlers who cannot recognize the difference should avoid all but the smallest holes. Hydraulics around man-made dams must be treated with utmost respect regardless of their height or the level of the river. Despite their seemingly benign appearance, they can create an almost escape-proof trap. The swimmer’s only exit from the “drowning machine” is to dive below the surface when the downstream current is flowing beneath the reversal.
坝,水栅,暗礁,反转,坑,和水利设施。当水跌过障碍物,它会自己回卷,形成一股强劲的可以困住船或者游泳者的回流。一些这样的洞有助于运动的精彩,其他的被证实是杀手,浆手除了最小的水洞之外,是分辩不出它们之间的不同的。不管坝有多矮或者水流的级别,人工水坝及其周围的水利工程必需对它们抱以最大限度的注意。尽管它们表面看来很平和,但它们能制造几乎不可逃脱的陷阱。游泳者唯一能脱离这个“溺死机器”的方法,是潜落到回卷旋涡之下沿向前的水流到下游。


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6.Broaching. when a boat is pushed sideways against a rock by strong current, it may collapse and wrap. this is especially dangerous to kayak and decked canoe paddlers; these boats will collapse and the combination of indestructible hulls and tight outfitting may create a deadly trap. even without entrapment,
releasing pinned boats can be extremely time-consuming and dangerous. to avoid pinning, throw your weight downstream towards the rock. this allows the current to slide harmlessly underneath the hull.
像被串在叉上一样
当船身被强大的水流冲向石头,它可能会被分解成两部份。对于kayak和装配甲板canoe的桨手来讲,这将会尤为危险。这些船将会被瓦解,分解出来的壳和坚固的装备将会成为致命的陷阱。即使船没有分解形成陷阱,推开钉住你的船也将会是极费时间和危险期的。要避免被钉住,扔掉身上的包袱潜游到石头的前方。在船壳之后,水流是不会对你造成伤害的。


7.Boating alone is discouraged. The minimum party is three people or two craft.
单独划船是不提倡的。最小的团队是三个人或者两条船。


8.Have a frank knowledge of your boating ability, and don’t attempt rivers or rapids which lie beyond that ability.
清楚自己划艇的能力和知识,经验。不要去尝试超出自己能力的河流和急流。


9.Be in Good physical and mental condition, consistent with the difficulties which may be expected. Make adjustments for loss of skills due to age, health, fitness. Any health limitations must be explained to your fellow paddlers prior to starting the trip.
身体和精神都处在良好的状态,对将要发生的困难要有所估计。
对年龄,健康,适应等因素对能力的下降有所估计及调整。任何健康问题都要在开始旅程之前对同伴说明。



10.Be practiced in self-rescue, including escape from an overturned craft. The eskimo roll is strongly recommended for decked boaters who run rapids Class IV or greater, or who paddle in cold environmental conditions.
自救熟练。
包括翻滚技术。过四级或者更高级的急流,或者在冰冻的环境中,强烈建议会eskimo rool(花式艇的翻滚)。



11.Be trained in rescue skills, CPR, and first aid with special emphasis on the recognizing and treating hypothermia. It may save your friend’s life.
接受救援技巧,CPR,和急救的培训。
特别强调的是对失温的处理。它会救回你朋友的生命。



12.Carry equipment needed for unexpected emergencies, including foot wear which will protect your feet when walking out, a throw rope, knife, whistle, and waterproof matches. If you wear eyeglasses, tie them on and carry a spare pair on long trips. Bring cloth repair tape on short runs, and a full repair kit on isolated rivers. Do not wear bulky jackets, ponchos, heavy boots, or anything else which could reduce your ability to survive a swim.
带应付意外的紧急事件的装备。
包括行出船外用于保护你双脚的鞋子,抛绳,小刀,哨子和防水袋。如果你戴眼镜,用细绳绑紧它们,并且如果长途施行的话带多一副备用的。短程时带衣物的修理带,去与外界隔绝的河流时,要带一整套的修理工具。不要穿着宽松的衣服,雨衣,重靴或者任何在你游泳求生时会降低你能力的东西。



13.Despite the mutually supportive group structure described in this code, individual paddlers are ultimately responsible for their own safety, and must assume sole responsibility for the following decisions:

I.The decision to participate on any trip. This includes an evaluation of the expected difficulty of the rapids under the conditions existing at the time of the put-in.

II.The selection of appropriate equipment, including a boat design suited to their skills and the appropriate rescue and survival gear.

III.The decision to scout any rapid, and to run or portage according to their best judgment. Other members of the group may offer advice, but paddlers should
resist pressure from anyone to paddle beyond their skills. It is also their responsibility to decide whether to pass up any walk-out or take-out opportunity.

IV.All trip participants should consistently evaluate their own and their group’s safety, voicing their concerns when appropriate and following what they believe to be the best course of action. Paddlers are encouraged to speak with anyone whose actions on the water are dangerous, whether they are a part of your group or not.

一个互助的团体,组队时应有以下描述:浆手最终对自己的安全负责,并对以下的情况作唯一的决定:

I.参与到旅程中。包括在当时的情况下对急流难度的评估。
II.决定选择适当的装备,包括与他们能力匹配的船以及适合的救援和求生装置。
III.决定人去侦察急流,通过他们最好的判断是划还是搬船。其他队员可以提供建议,但桨手应该抵受住压力,拒绝划超越他们能力的急流。这也是他们的责任,决定是走出去还是划出去。
IV.任何一个队员都应该评估他们自己和队伍的安全。适当时表达自己的观点,并且跟随他们认为行进中最好的路线。有人在水上的活动有潜在危险的话,向任何人讲出来的行为是值得鼓励的,无论他们是否你的队员。
二.Boat and Equipment Preparedness
船及装备的准备

1.Test new and different equipment under familiar conditions before relying on it for difficult runs. This is especially true when adopting a new boat design or outfitting system. Low-volume craft may present additional hazards to inexperienced or poorly conditioned paddlers.
测试新和不同的装备.在艰难环境下依仗装备之前要熟悉它们,尤其是采用新设计的船和装备的时候。对于新手或者身体状况不好的桨手来说,小容积的船可能带来额外的危险。

2.Be sure your boat and gear are in good repair before starting a trip. The more isolated and difficult the run, the more rigorous this inspection should be.
确保你的船和传动装置在出行前有好的保养。去越偏远越困难的地方,所作的检查就应该越严格。


3.Install flotation bags in non-inflatable craft, securely fixed in each end, designed to displace as much water as possible. Inflatable boats should have multiple air chambers and be test-inflated before launching.
在非充气的船上安装一些安全环状浮袋,固定在每一端,设计用于船入大量水的情况。充气船应该有多个气室并在下水前作充气测试。

4.Have strong, properly sized paddles or oars for controlling your craft. Carry sufficient spares for the length and difficulty of the trip.
有结实合适尺寸的桨或者橹来控制你的船。带足够的备件应付远行或者艰难的旅程。


5.Outfit your boat safely. The ability to exit your boat quickly is an essential component of safety in rapids. It is your responsibility to see that thereis absolutely nothing to cause entrapment when coming free of an upset craft. This includes:
I.Spray covers which won’t release reliably or which release prematurely.
II.Boat outfitting too tight to allow a fast exit, especially in low volume kayaks or decked canoes. This includes low-hung thwarts in canoes lacking adequate clearance for your feet and kayak footbraces which fail or allow your feet to become wedged under them.
III.Inadequately supported decks which collapse on a paddler’s legs when a decked boat is pinned by water pressure. Inadequate clearance with the deck because of your size or build.
IV.Loose ropes which cause entanglement. Beware of any length of loose line attached to a whitewater boat. All items must be tied tightly and excess line eliminated; painters, throw lines, and safety rope systems must be completely and effectively stored. Do not knot the end of a rope, as it can get caught in cracks between rocks.

5.令你的船安全。在急流中,迅速离开船的能力是必需的安全要素。检查并且令到绝对没有在翻船时阻拌缠绕你离开的东西,是你的职责。这些东西包括:

I. 防浪裙不能及时打开或者过早打开。

II.船的装备太紧影响快速离开。尤其是在小体积的独木舟或者装甲板的船。包括船中安装的低挂的横坐板没有足够空间给你的脚,独木舟的支脚也会弄伤你的脚。

III. 当船被水压钉住,不适当地支撑着的覆盖物倒下压住你的腿。因你的体格或者身材而不能清除覆盖物。

IV. 松散的绳造成的纠缠。小心附在白水船上的松散的绳子的任何长度。所有东西必需紧绑并且剩余的绳子要去掉;"钉“,抛绳,安全绳必需完整并被有效保存。不要在绳子的末端打结,因为它会绊在石缝之间。


6.Provide ropes which permit you to hold on to your craft so that it may be rescued. The following methods are recommended:
I.Kayaks and covered canoes should have grab loops of 1/4” + rope or equivalent webbing sized to admit a normal-sized hand. Stern painters are permissible if properly secured.
II.Open canoes should have securely anchored bow and stern painters consisting of 8 - 10 feet of 1/4” + line. These must be secured in such a way that they are readily accessible, but cannot come loose accidentally. Grab loops are acceptable, but are more difficult to reach after an upset.
III.Rafts and dories may have taut perimeter lines threaded through the loops provided. Footholds should be designed so that a paddler’s feet cannot be forced through them, causing entrapment. Flip lines should be carefully and reliably stowed.

准备的绳子可以让你抓住筏以被营救。以下的方法是被推荐的:

I.独木舟和封闭式的船应该有1/4'+粗的绳或者其他设备造成的圆环或者可抓手的地方,可容下普通尺寸的手。如果牢固话,stern painters(尾舵?)是充许的。
II.开放式的船必需有8-10英尺长,1/4'粗的绳构成的安全的anchored bow(船头的锚?) 和stern painters(尾舵?)。这些绳必需牢固并且容量被抓住,但不能由于意外而松开。圆环是合适的,但翻船后不容易抓住。
III.筏和舫上应该有系紧的,带螺纹的,穿过圆环而环船的绳。立足点应该被设计到浆手的脚不必穿过它们,造成陷阱。绳索应该谨慎并可靠地装置好。

7.Know your craft’s carrying capacity, and how added loads affect boat handling in whitewater. Most rafts have a minimum crew size which can be added to on day trips or in easy rapids. Carrying more than two paddlers in an open canoe when running rapids is not recommended.
知道你船只的运输能力,并且如何操控在白水中超载的船只。在一天的活动或者简单的急流中,大部分的船只都有一个增加人的限量。不推荐开放式船只在急流中的活动承载两人以上。



8.Car-top racks must be strong and attach positively to the vehicle. Lash your boat to each crossbar, then tie the ends of the boats directly to the bumpers for added security. This arrangement should survive all but the most violent vehicle accident.
车顶架必需正确并牢固地稳定在车上。每一次经过缓冲坡都捆扎好你的船,然后将船直接系紧在缓冲器上以增加安全。这些安排将会在严重的交通事故后令所有人存活。

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